Tools for international trade
BEMAR, international logistics operator
Segregation of incompatible goods:
goods considered incompatible (certain chemical products, foodstuffs and toxic products, etc.) should not be loaded together in the same cargo transport unit (CTU).
Even weight distribution among the packages:
when stacking, it is necessary to consider the strain of some packages on others. If necessary, panels can be inserted between the rows to distribute the load weight properly.
Professional training and prevention of workplace hazards:
handling staff must have the required training in cargo handling and have the appropriate protection equipment for the characteristics of the goods they have to handle.
Even loading of cargo:
the merchandise must be evenly distributed in the CTU. It is advisable to avoid concentrating a lot of cargo in small areas. If it is done, beams or supports must be used to distribute the weight evenly across the floor.
Securing the load:
the goods must be prevented from moving within the CTU, taking into account the acceleration coefficients for each mode of transport. For this purpose, goods may be secured by fastening, shoring or blocking with approved and certified filling materials.
Prevention of excess handling:
it is advisable to facilitate partial unloading and avoid load removals which, in addition to implying a cost overrun, increase the risk of the goods suffering damages. For example, if a container is loaded at origin with some pallets for consignee A and others for consignee B that must be delivered in this order, stowing the first pallets near the door speeds up the partial unloading and only the necessary merchandise is manipulated.
Stowage of the goods according to their physical properties:
if the resistance of the packaging allows it, liquid goods should be stowed under solid ones. That way, an accidental leak of liquid will fall on the ground without damaging the rest of the load. It is also advisable to place light loads on top of heavy ones to prevent damage by crushing.
Determining the load’s centre of gravity:
care should be taken that the longitudinal centre of gravity of the load conforms to the load diagram recommended for the CTU. For example, in the case of a container it must match its geometric centre. Likewise, the transverse centre of gravity of the load must coincide as far as possible with the geometrical centre of the CTU in the same direction. It should be as low as possible and, in any case, avoid exceeding half the height of the CTU.
Prevention in handling of CTU:
it is essential to observe the hazard warnings that appear on the CTU door in order to guarantee the safety of the personnel manipulating it. For example, in a container carrying liquid bulk in a flexible tank, only the right door leaf should be opened while the left one must remains closed until the tank is completely emptied. Also prevent goods stowed in the area near the door from falling on the person who opens the CTU. To do this, the load should be secured with nets or other fastening fixtures that withstand the weight of the goods.
Prevention in handling of merchandise:
the means for handling the merchandise must be used to ensure the stability of the CTU. For example, if a container is being consolidated from a loading dock onto a road semi-trailer, the tractor unit must remain hooked up with the brakes on at all times. If it is unhooked from the semi-trailer, trestles must be placed under the front part to prevent the semi-trailer from pitching and causing an accident when the forklift enters the container.